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Global Environmental Monitoring Stations/ Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resource
 

Introduction

CPCB in collaboration with concerned SPCBs/PCCs established a nationwide network of water quality monitoring comprising 2500 stations in 28 States and 6 Union Territories. The monitoring is done on monthly or quarterly basis in surface waters and on half yearly basis in case of ground water. The monitoring network covers 445 Rivers, 154 Lakes, 12 Tanks, 78 Ponds, 41 Creeks/Seawater, 25 Canals, 45 Drains, 10 Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water) and 807 Wells. Among the 2500 stations, 1275 are on rivers, 190 on lakes, 45 on drains, 41 on canals, 12 on tanks, 41 on  creeks/seawater, 79 on ponds, 10 Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water) and 807 are groundwater stations

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National Water Quality Monitoring Network.

Presently the inland water quality-monitoring network is operated under a three-tier programme i.e. Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources System (MINARS) and Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). Water samples are being analysed for 28 parameters consisting of 9 core parameters, 19 other physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters apart from the field observations. Besides this, 9 trace metals and 15 pesticides are also analysed in selected samples. Biomonitoring is also carried out on specific locations. In view of limited resources, limited numbers of organic pollution related parameters are monitored i.e. micro pollutants (Toxic Metals & POPs) are analysed once in a year to assess the water quality. The water quality data are reported in Water Quality Status Year Book.

National Water Quality at a Glance

 The water quality data on rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and groundwater locations being monitored under the network is evaluated against the water quality criteria and the monitoring locations in exceedence with respect to one or more parameters are identified as polluted, which requires action for restoration of water quality. The locations on rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and groundwater not meeting the criteria are summarized ahead.

  • The comparative assessment of rivers exceeding BOD levels are compared with the observations of 2010. The BOD concentration level has increasing trend in 64 rivers and decreasing trend in 59 rivers however River Purna (Tapi) has seen no change in BOD level (Table - I).

                             Table-I: Comparative Assessment of BOD levels in River

River

B.O.D. (mg/l)

Trend

River

B.O.D. (mg/l)

Trend

2011

2010

2011

2010

Kala Amb

535.0

1025.0

Decreasing

Ghaggar

68.0

70.0

Decreasing

Kundalika

12.0

250

Decreasing

Amravati (Tapi)

10.0

12.0

Derecasing

Hindon

50.0

278

Decreasing

Girna

10.0

12.0

Decreasing

Khan

1.3

120

Decreasing

Gomai

8.0

10.0

Decreasing

Bhavani

6.2

93.0

Decreasing

Wena

12.0

13.6

Decreasing

Mula

19.5

88.5

Decreasing

Gomti

10.5

12.0

Decreasing

Mula-Mutha

21.5

79.0

Decreasing

Hiwara

8.0

9.0

Decreasing

Mutha

23.5

68.0

Decreasing

Kalisot

5.4

6.4

Decreasing

Yamuna

41.0

84.0

Decreasing

Nira (Godavari)

8.5

9.2

Decreasing

Pawana

19.5

58.0

Decreasing

Kharkhla

7.5

7.8

Decreasing

Indrayani

13.0

46.0

Decreasing

Purna (Tapi)

14.0

14.0

Same

Varuna

27.6

54.0

Decreasing

Umtrew

8.8

8.5

Increasing

Godavari

37.0

60

Decreasing

Bindusar

7.4

7.0

Increasing

Urmodi

7.5

28.7

Decreasing

Bichia

8.5

8

Increasing

Venna

10.0

30.0

Decreasing

Mahananda

6.6

5.5

Increasing

Cauvery

7.2

27.0

Decreasing

Kansi

6.1

4.9

Increasing

Kathajodi

3.9

22.5

Decreasing

Brahmani

6.8

5.6

Increasing

Bhima

22.0

38.5

Decreasing

Chandrabhaga

10.5

9.2

Increasing

Wainganga

12.0

28.0

Decreasing

Koyna

9.0

7.5

Increasing

Nira (Krishna)

13.0

28.0

Decreasing

Kuakhai

6.5

5

Increasing

Morna

6.6

20.0

Decreasing

Sonai

6.0

4.5

Increasing

Mahanadi

3.6

14.3

Decreasing

Pennar

6.0

4.4

Increasing

Rapti

7.5

18.0

Decreasing

Teesta

6.2

4.4

Increasing

Kolar

8.0

18.0

Decreasing

Darna

12.0

10.0

Increasing

Bharalu

50.0

58

Decreasing

Waghur

10.0

8.0

Increasing

Satluj

32.0

40.0

Decreasing

Damodar

7.8

5.8

Increasing

Panzara

10.0

18.0

Decreasing

Burhidihing

9.8

7.8

Increasing

Mor

7.0

14.0

Decreasing

Surya

7.0

4.4

Increasing

Manjira

7.6

14.0

Decreasing

Digboi

7.0

4.3

Increasing

Purna (Godavari)

7.7

14.0

Decreasing

Brahmaputra

9.2

6.3

Increasing

Chambal

42.0

48

Decreasing

Kshipra

28.0

25

Increasing

Kan

10.0

16.0

Decreasing

Nakkavagu

18.0

15.0

Increasing

Tapi

10.0

16.0

Decreasing

Vel

14.0

11.0

Increasing

Malei

1.2

6

Decreasing

Karola

6.1

3.1

Increasing

Assonora

2.3

7.0

Decreasing

Disang

6.3

3.2

Increasing

Bicholim

3.9

8.1

Decreasing

Chuntkol

7.0

3.8

Increasing

Kali (M&M)

4.3

8.4

Decreasing

Maner

9.5

6.0

Increasing

Ganga

11.0

15.0

Decreasing

Sina

12.2

8.4

Increasing

Titur

10.0

14.0

Decreasing

Ramganga

12.4

8.6

Increasing

Bori

8.0

12.0

Decreasing

Rihand

7.2

2.9

Increasing

Burai

8.0

12.0

Decreasing

Dhansiri

6.8

2.4

Increasing

Deepar Bill

6.4

10.4

Decreasing

Tambiraparani

8.0

3.1

Increasing

Mindhola

4.0

8

Decreasing

Patalganga

16.0

11.0

Increasing

Dwarka

12.2

15.4

Decreasing

Tungabhadra

8.2

3.0

Increasing

Dhadar

19.0

22

Decreasing

Krishna

16.0

10.0

Increasing

Kanhan

11.0

14.0

Decreasing

Penganga

15.0

9.0

Increasing

Ghod

10.5

13.5

Decreasing

Kadambayar

9.4

3.4

Increasing

Shivna

4.0

7

Decreasing

Vaitarna

10.0

3.5

Increasing

Karmana

18.0

20.4

Decreasing

Bhatsa

10.0

3.4

Increasing

Sirsa

15.0

8.0

Increasing

Pedhi

46.0

16.4

Increasing

Tansa

11.0

4.0

Increasing

Thirumanimuthar

83.7

54.0

Increasing

Manusmar

10.0

2.7

Increasing

Musi

145.0

110.0

Increasing

Suswa

38.0

30.0

Increasing

Panchaganga

67.5

28.0

Increasing

Harbora

12.0

3.5

Increasing

Churni

64.0

3.7

Increasing

Kalu

15.0

4.0

Increasing

Sarabanga

85.0

5.6

Increasing

Nambul

30.5

19

Increasing

Kali (W)

369.0

287

Increasing

Ram Rekha

15.0

3.5

Increasing

Matha Bhanga

90.0

5.4

Increasing

Kalinadi (E)

161.0

146

Increasing

Wardha

110.0

25.0

Increasing

Budhabalanga

22.0

2.2

Increasing

Mithi

175.0

75.0

Increasing

Vindyadhari

26.8

6.6

Increasing

Damanganga

354.0

32

Increasing

Betwa

104.0

78

Increasing

Vasista

340.0

5.0

Increasing

Jalangi

28.0

1.9

Increasing

Savitri

525.0

5.4

Increasing

Water Quality Trend

The water quality monitoring results obtained during 1995 to 2011 indicate that the organic and bacterial contamination are continued to be critical in water bodies. This is mainly due to discharge of domestic wastewater mostly in untreated form from the urban centres of the country. The municipal corporations at large are not able to treat increasing the load of municipal sewage flowing into water bodies without treatment.

 

Secondly the receiving water bodies also do not have adequate water for dilution. Therefore, the oxygen demand and bacterial pollution is increasing day by day. This is mainly responsible for water borne diseases.

The water quality monitoring results were analysed with respect to indicator of oxygen consuming substances (Bio-chemical demand) and indicator of pathogenic bacteria (total colliform and faecal colliform). The result of such analysis shows that there is gradual degradation in water quality. The number of observations having BOD and coliform density has increased during 1995 to 2011. The water quality status for the period 1995 to 2011 in terms of number of observations having values of parameters in different ranges are given in the figure 2 to figure 4.

Figure 2: Water Quality Trend (BOD, mg/l)

Figure 3: Water Quality Trend (Total Coliform, MPN/100 ml)

Figure 4: Water Quality Trend (Faecal Coliform, MPN/100 ml)

The numbers of observed BOD values less than 3 mg/l were between 57-69% during year 1995 to 2011. The maximum value of 69% was observed during 2007. It was observed that there was a gradual decrease in number of observations having BOD < 3.

The number of observed BOD values ranges from 3-6 mg/l was between 17-28% during year 1995 to 2011, the maximum value of 28% was observed in the year 1998. It was observed that there was a gradual decrease in number of observations having BOD between 3-6 mg/l.

The numbers of observed BOD value> 6 mg/l were between 13 and 19% during year 1995-2011 and the maximum value of 19% was observed in the year 2001 and 2002. It was observed that there was a gradual decrease and in 2011 the percentage observation was 18 % having BOD >6.

The numbers of observed TC values < 500 MPN/100 ml were between 44-63% during 1995-2011. The highest percentage of observations was observed as 63% in year 1999 which decreases to 50% during 2011.

The numbers of observed TC values ranges from 500-5000 were between 28-39% during year 1995-2011 the maximum value of 39% was observed in 2010.
The numbers of observed TC values > 5000 were between 9-24% during year 1995-2011. Minimum value of 9% was observed during the year 1999. The maximum value of 24% was observed in the year 2006. During 2011 it was observed as 14% indicating decreasing trend.

The numbers of observed FC values <500 MPN/100 ml was between 48-70% during year 1995-2011. The maximum value of 70% was observed in the year 2009.
The numbers of observed FC values ranges from 500-5000 MPN/100 ml was between 20-35% during year 1995 to 2011.  The maximum value of 35% was observed in the year 1999, which decreases to 21% in the year 2011.
The numbers of observed FC values > 5000 MPN/100 ml was between 7-21% during year 1995-2011.  The maximum value of 21% was observed in 2006, which decreases to 10% in the year 2011.

Water Quality trend of BOD in Rivers

The Water Quality trend of BOD in River Ganga, Yamuna, Sabarmati, Mahi, Tapi, Narmada, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, Mahanadi, Brahmani, Baitarni, Subarnarekha, Brahmaputra, Satluj, Beas, Pennar and Ghaggar depicting the data from 2002 to 2011 is presented in figure 5 to 21.

Figure 5: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Ganga

Figure 6: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Yamuna

Figure 7: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Sabarmati

Figure 8: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Mahi

Figure 9: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Tapi

Figure 10: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Narmada

Figure 11: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Godavari

Figure 12: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Krishna


Figure 13: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Cauvery

Figure 14:  Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Mahanadi

Figure 15: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Brahmani

Figure 16:  Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Baitarni

Figure 17:  Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Subarnarekha       

Figure 18:  Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Brahmaputra

Figure 19: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Satluj

Figure 20: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Beas

Figure 21: Water Quality Trend of BOD in River Pennar