Mandate for Water Quality MontoringUpdated on : 11 Sep 2017

Government of India enacted the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 to maintain wholesomeness of aquatic resources. The act prescribes various functions for the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at the apex level and State Pollution Control Boards at the state level.

Main functions of the Central Pollution Control Board
  • To advise the Central Government on any matter concerning restoration and maintaining the wholesomeness of aquatic resources and the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.
  • To plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.
  • To provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Pollution Control Board.
  • To carry out and sponsor investigations and research related to prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.
  • To collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data related to water pollution.
  • To lay down and annul standards for the quality of water in streams and wells.
Main functions of the State Pollution Control Boards
  • To plan a comprehensive programme for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution and to secure the execution thereof
  • To advise the State Government on any matter concerning prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.
  • To collect and disseminate information related to water pollution.
  • To collaborate with Central Pollution Control Board in programme related to prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.
  • To inspect air pollution control areas, assess quality of water and to take steps for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution in such areas.

To perform the above functions, CPCB needs continuous monitoring of water quality of aquatic resources in the country. CPCB has established a network of water quality monitoring to fullfill the following objectives.

Objectives of Water Quality Monitoring
  • Rational planning of pollution control strategies and their prioritisation;
  • To assess nature and extent of pollution control needed in different water bodies or their part;
  • To evaluate effectiveness of pollution control measures already in existence;
  • To evaluate water quality trend over a period of time;
  • To assess assimilative capacity of a water body thereby reducing cost on pollution control;
  • To understand the environmental fate of different pollutants.
  • To assess the fitness of water for different uses.
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