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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the 17 Categories of the major polluting industries?
  • Aluminium Smelter
  • Caustic Soda
  • Cement
  • Copper Smelter
  • Distilleries
  • Dyes & Dye Intermediates
  • Fertiliser
  • Integrated Iron & Steel
  • Tanneries
  • Pesticides
  • Petrochemicals
  • Drugs & Pharmaceuticals
  • Pulp & Paper
  • Oil Refineries
  • Sugar
  • Thermal Power Plants
  • Zinc Smelter
What actions have been taken on the 17 categories of the industries which have come into operation after 1991 i.e. the Post-91 industries ?

The inventorization of the Post-91 large and medium industries of 17 categories have been completed. A total of 587 such industries have been identified and out of these, 561 units are presently operating. Although, it was mandatory for these units to have been allowed only if they had the requisite pollution control facilities, there latest compliance status is being verified.

What are the details of the programme on pollution control in the Problem Areas?

A programme for pollution control through concerted efforts in polluted areas was started in 1989. The programme involves identification of the polluted areas, intensive surveys of these areas for identification of polluting sources, preparation of action plans for control of these polluting sources, and implementation of the action points by the concerned responsible agencies/industries.

Number of Problem areas identified so far and what is their status in respect of the control of pollution from the industries existing in these areas?
  • 24 Problem Areas have been identified for priority action in the country. Out of these 24 areas, the action plans have been implemented in respect of 16 namely, Bhadravati, Chembur, Digboi, Gobindgarh, Greater-Cochin, Kala-Amb, Manali, Nagda-Ratlam, North-Arcot, Pali, Parwanoo, Patancheru-Bollaram, Talcher, Vapi, Vishakhapatnam and Ankleshwar, and are under implementation in the remaining 8, namely Dhanbad, Durgapur, Howrah, Jodhpur, Korba, Najafgarh Drain Basin Delhi, Singrauli, and Tarapur
  • There are total of 152 large and medium polluting industries located in these areas, out of which 17 are closed and all the remaining 134 industries have provided the requisite pollution control facilities.
What are the industrial pollution programmes existing which are based on the concept of sustainable development?

The industrial pollution control programmes which incorporate the concept of sustainable development are :

  • Environmental auditing and submission of the annual environmental statements by the industries
  • Conducting of EIA studies before establishment of new polluting industries
  • Change over to clean technologies for example mercury cell to membrane cells in chloralkali plants.
  • Zoning Atlas of Siting Industries; and
  • Eco-labeling of environment-friendly products
What are the incentives to the industries for pollution control ?

The steps taken by the various categories of the industries for reduction in the generation of the pollutants are as follows:

  1. Commissioning of the stand-by power supply systems by chlor-alkali plants reduce mercury emission due to power failures
  2. Introduction of blending system for coal homogenisation in cement plants to ensure stable operation of the ESPs
  3. Conversion of single hood to the double hood system in copper smelters to reduce the fugitive emissions
  4. Biomethanation of the effluents in distillerie
  5. Solar evaporation ponds in small-scale water polluting units not having CETPs in the proximity
  6. Conversion of the open hearth furnaces (OHF) to the basic oxygen furnaces (BOF) and introduction of the dry system (instead of wet) for the quenching of the hot coke in iron & steel plants
  7. Commissioning of chemical recovery plants (CRPs) by pulp & paper industries; and
  8. Change over the DCDA production method by sulphuric acid
What are the important Environmental Laws in the country?
  • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
  • Cess Act, 1977,
  • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Rules thereunder
  • Public Liability Insurance Act, 1981,
  • National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
  • National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997
What are the different programes/activities implemented through State Pollution Control Board?

State Boards are implementing following programmes:

  • Pollution control in 17 categories of highly polluting industries
  • Pollution control from industries discharging waste water into rivers and lakes.
  • Inventorization of pollution industries in the State and ensuring their compliance to the pollution control norms
  • Restoration of environmental quality in critically polluted areas
  • Monitoring of water and ambient air quality in the States
  • Hazardous waste
  • Bio-medical and Management of Municipal Solid Wastes
What are the projects taken up for strengthening of Pollution Control Boards with World Bank assistance.

With the assistance of the World Bank, following three environmental projects have been undertaken to strengthen monitoring and enforcement capability of selected Pollution Control Boards/ Committees and to perform specific studies to prevent environmental degradation.

  • Industrial Pollution Project (IPC)- Signed in 1991 and completed in 1999;
  • Industrial Pollution Prevention Project (IPP)- Signed in 1994 and its implementation is
    in progress;
  • Environmental Management Capacity Building Technical Assistance Project (EMCBTA)- Signed in 1997 and its implementation is in progress
Names of the State Pollution Control Boards/ Committees covered under the projects for strengthening.

Besides Central Pollution Control Board and its zonal offices, following 22 State Pollution Control Boards/ Pollution Control Committees have been covered under the projects. These are
Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharahstra, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

Whether SPCBs and PCCs are getting adequate financial support from State Governments and what is the financial status?

SPCBs are getting only marginal/ nominal financial assistance from State Governments. In some of the State Pollution Control Boards, State Governments are not providing budgetary grants. State Pollution Control Boards are dependent on consent and authorization fee and cess reimbursements which they get out of cess collections.

Whether Ministry provides financial assistance to State Pollution Control Boards.

Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) provides financial assistance to State pollution Control Boards on specific projects relating to prevention and control of pollution. Ministry provides financial assistance on following programmes:

  • Specific projects for abatement of pollution
  • Hazardous waste management
  • Management of municipal solid waste
  • Strengthening of Pollution Control Boards (for laboratory upgrdation)
Whether State Pollution Control Boards/ Pollution Control Committees are following uniform rules/ procedures for implementation of pollution control rules.

State Pollution Control Boards have framed rules as per approval of State Governments. More or less, procedure and rules followed by State Pollution Control Boards are similar.

What are the laws enforced by of the Pollution Control Boards ?

The Central and State Pollution Control Boards were set up for enforcement of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. Over the years, the Boards have been assigned additional responsibilities which include the following :

  • Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977.
  • Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
  • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Rules made thereunder
  • Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules1989.
  • Manufacture, storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989
  • Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998
  • Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000.
  • Plastics wastes Rules, 1999 o Coastal Regulation Zone Rules, 1991
  • Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
What are the sources of fund for the Central and State Pollution Control Boards ?

The Central Pollution Control Board is fully funded by the Central Ministry of Environment & Forests. The State Pollution Control Boards receive funds from the concerned State Governments and from the Central Ministry of Environment & Forests through reimbursement of Water Cess (upto 80%) collected by the respective State Boards. In addition, the State Boards receive fees for processing for applications from the industries for issuing consent in regard to discharge of effluent and emissions.

What are the programmes taken up for Industrial Pollution Control ?

The programmes covering direct control of effluents/ emissions, and hazardous wastes from the industries taken up are as follows:

  • Industrial Pollution Control along the river Ganga,
  • Pollution Control in 17 Categories of major polluting industries,
  • Industrial pollution control along the rivers and lakes,
  • Pollution Control in Problem Areas, and
  • Surprise inspection of polluting industries